What are the main design principles based on which the later manufacturing staircases? How to make a ladder? Manufacture of any stairs – a multi-faceted issue. For example, spiral staircases, whether wood they metal or stone – require great skill and with his own hands to make them hard. There needs accurate calculation steps as a whole and for each stage separately, detailed drawings, and stairs, and each stage. And they do not replace those that will download from the network any photos, designs, drawings foreign stairs. Whether it's a wooden ladder in the village Baluster or stone staircase in the city of Taganrog. Spiral staircase easier to buy, these are ready, wrote in a brief online – buy a ladder – and looking through the options, what is called the stair-line! And after the purchase – mounting their own hands or by experts.
Spiral Staircase, as indeed, march with stages or rotary platform can also be made to order – there will be making a more substantive, will be higher and the price ladder. The main design principle – based on the purpose ladder. Ladder for the home and the stairs to give – it is almost always different ladders. First, for the home, can be wooden and completely from the stages before the fence, and metal, in which only the level of the tree and fence – of forging. And even stone.
To a rich house – stairs and fence – a noble marble balustrade – ash, oak and beech. The house is less than the rich – the concrete steps and banisters of the same tree, but, say, birch, pine, larch. A staircase to give almost should always be wood, often on a steep climb, but not enough to under the stairs did not have enough space to closet or refrigerator. Attic ladder, fire ladder, ladders Ladders – also very different in that used for the manufacture of the material. Ladders are different, but almost always – aluminum, because one – should be portable, folding like a transformer and the other – mobile, leaning as much as possible light. Firefighters exterior stairs necessarily metal, but not aluminum, and are usually steel. Attic stairs can be both wooden and metal, and combined, for example, the wooden steps on the metal frame, fencing, they are often absent. And let's say, ladders for swimming pools – chrome steel, they are modular, with a set of required number of steps. Does not require the material, and time to make, perhaps, just a fantastic staircase to heaven, because heaven can be reached in dreams. On the surface, in the movies, the ladder into the sky like a rope. But the main thing in it – your dreams! We can say – the simplest ladder on order, for those who do not forgotten how to dream. We wish you not to lose the ability to dream! Despite the obstacles and trials! The more so that any other stair – for a home or to testify on the second floor or basement, too – you also can not buy, do not being able to dream. You know the refrain 'repairs in the apartment do not work and the boss! "? And to the stairs. Though her to buy a ready, though made to order, even though their hands – all the same to create, buy it you can only own dreams!
If you planned construction of a wooden house on the ground, but you all my life lived in an apartment with utilities and amenities, then you should prepare yourself for some hardships that are possible when Living in a private home. Prepare, as well as possible to eliminate these burdens at the initial stage. For most people, the main difficulty is the lack of a warm bathroom in the house and, accordingly, "nocturnal march" on street. Well, if there is no way to drain, then the only option in this situation is to build a warm toilet. First of all, its walls should be insulated so that this building could hold heat. Today there are many types of heaters that are applicable in this case. Also, you can use double walls, between which should fill concrete block.
Fixed a small heater in the toilet (or lamp) in the presence of heat-insulating walls, is able to heat the indoor air to a temperature that will be more comfortable for people, even the severe frosts. The second "inconvenience" to the degree of significance is the lack of centralized water supply and drainage of fluid from the technical Basin, located in the kitchen wooden private houses. This problem can be solved as follows. Take two dvuhsotlitrovye barrel and boil them in by welding together pre-cut off from one barrel bottom. Then, in the welded structure should be to drill a large number of small holes, through which could leave the water.
Next, you need to dig this barrel somewhere in the yard (preferably at some distance from the windows) and make a strong pipeline, so it can not be damaged during the cold season. The resulting septic tank hatch cover and sprinkle with thermal insulation material (Insulation, leaves, debris, etc.). Such is the homemade drain will operate year round, but every year, it will need to be cleaned. If you do not understand that the wooden house must be constantly repair, or not ready for it, it can serve as an alternative construction of a brick house. Brick house stronger and in some cases (if the house will stand on dry ground, and the floors will not sweat), even requires the mound. Naturally neither change the crowns after a certain number of years, or paint the house, no hemming is required.
Often put forward the hypothesis that the bill is the product of administrative reform and embodied solely by her. It's not quite true. One of the earliest texts of the draft law was prepared Fund's market research experts, established professional associations in the financial markets and "sympathizers" of occupations (NAUFOR partad, bda, bcc, apf, apf League, etc.). The first bill dealt with the establishment and operation of self-regulatory organizations (SROs) in the financial markets because it was thought that these markets are the most "trained", not least because the creation of SROs professional securities market participants stipulated norms of the law "On securities market" is already in its first edition, ie, in 1996 themselves are associations of professional securities market participants applying for the status of SROs, have appeared before. The first experience in the establishment and operation of sro allowed to understand and identify possible areas of development and the necessary self-regulation. At a certain stage of the Bill, it became clear that there should be a law that would have allowed the SROs to create not only the financial market but also in other areas of the economy. So there was sro in the building.
One such self-regulating organizations is "DSP" SCOPE-A. For construction work needed to enter into the construction of sro "SCOPE-A" and gain a certificate of admission to the construction works. Self-regulation successfully entered into administrative reform, a fundamental tenet of which is the presumption of non-state regulation. In accordance with the law the rights and obligations of associations, non-SRO construction or declared themselves as such, are not much different from the rights and responsibilities of associations or unions, established in accordance with the law "On Noncommercial Organizations". There is no single aggravating circumstances, to find out how the union may be referred to SROs in the construction and therefore have the necessary rights and responsibilities, making it possible to adjust the desired market segment. However, some federal laws for the institutions of self-assigned authority, are not typical for conventional non-profit organizations such as the right to sue in a different courts in the interests of third parties involved in implementing the federal agency monitoring compliance with the law (Article 28 of the Federal Law "On Advertising"), to obtain information on the results of inspections activities of its members (Article 49 of the Federal Law "On securities market"). The existing regulations regulate the operation of sro is not completely consistent.
Thus, the Law on sro "should be introduced for general all markets, the principles of the establishment and operation of SROs, to define their rights and responsibilities. However, the scope of the Law on sro "does not include the regulation of various forms and models of self-regulation, and especially their abolition. Following the adoption of Law on sro "like-minded group, using the self-regulatory mechanisms can be assembled to deal with any general problems, representation of their interests or for other purposes that do not contradict the Constitution. But they will not be called SROs Following the provisions of the bill on SROs, self-regulatory organization may be referred to the following organizations: which corresponds to the statutory requirements for adequate representation of producers of goods (services) (ie, has a sufficient number of members of the cpo – representatives of a certain profession or activity). For SROs in construction – it's 100 organizations that uses mechanisms of self-limited (in the form of liability insurance) and / or collective responsibility of members in the form of compensation funds (a special property, not associated with other property CPO) which has the following functional entities: agencies develop rules and standards bodies monitoring the implementation of regulations and standards bodies disciplined. An example organizations that meet these requirements is the sro in the construction sphere-A.
Boilers – installations, which heats the working fluid (usually water) for heating or steam supply. They are located in one technical area and connect with consumers by heating and / or steam. The basic unit of the facility is steam, Fire-tube and / or hot water boilers. Boiler rooms are divided by the process allocated by heat (hot water, steam, the superheated water thermo), by purpose (heating, process), by type of fuel used (gas, diesel, gas diesel, oil, gas, fuel oil, solid fuel), the Options (the block-modular roof, fixed, attached, built-in). The goal of any boiler – it's heat output for further use. Under-standing stationary boiler (industrial or household) is commonly understood building for heating fluid at a certain distance from the industrial, residential or office buildings.
Stationary boiler housed in a permanent building – already existing or newly constructed, its construction – it is a laborious and lengthy process. Stationary buildings and structures may be erected at the site of designs sandwich, they can be as detached and adjoined. However, the construction of a stationary boiler structures also requires more time and labor costs for installation of interior equipment: boilers, pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, instrumentation, electrical equipment. Roof said steam boiler or hot water boiler, which is placed on the roof of the building itself or on a specially constructed based on the roof. Roof units can be fitted under construction or reconstruction of the building if you can not use district heating.
Such boilers used for heating or hot water supply, as industrial buildings, as well as administrative and housing. Building roof designs are usually in a densely built-up areas. Dense buildings and the high cost of land in these areas make the construction of terrestrial plants heat production prohibitively expensive, and the heating system does not allow for a warm new building. Unlike other embodiments, integrated boiler is going directly into the building for other purposes. Such boilers are installed regardless of the ground floor accommodation. Built-in installation may be equipped with built or renovated buildings. As a rule, they are used when there is no possibility or inappropriate use district heating. Building boiler can be performed not only in steady, but the block-modular design. Modular boilers, production of which involve multiple enterprises, today are becoming more popular. Modular installation of a modular building and comes in the form of blocks of high factory readiness to set the main and auxiliary equipment. On-site units are assembled in a single building. Modular boilers are the most expensive and best way to get the necessary power for heating and hot water supply of residential houses, industrial and manufacturing facilities. The advantages of modular boiler installations in the capital before the buildings are obvious: cheaper building designs, quick installation, reducing the length of heating for through the optimal choice of mounting the boiler unit.
At present, with full confidence we can assert that the construction of houses made of wood undergoes its update. Modern wood houses are significantly different from the homes of our ancestors. They found their place and intelligence, experience the ancient times and modern high technology. The wooden house is perfect for areas with any climate. It can build on all soil types and costs of such a house is much less than the cost of similar Q-brick. Wooden house has a number of advantages.
This construction of environmentally friendly natural material, and the ability of the house to breathe and maintain its climate, as well as durability and strength specially treated wood. Construction of wood, whether it's Construction of holiday home or cottage, sauna or gazebo requires specific knowledge as a tree – a living building material that has many of its secrets. Experienced professionals understand that building a house is ideal wood harvested from selected timber harvesting winter. This is because with the advent of cold weather reduced the movement in the tree, its pores are closed, and the wood becomes more dense and durable. Preferably use conifer trees such as spruce, pine, larch and cedar. Softwood trees on comparison with the hardwood, is more durable, not as prone to destruction by parasites, is more resistant to damage. The trunk of the tree has a regular and smooth shape, which facilitates the procedure of handling and processing timber.
Construction of square log houses is becoming more and more accessible, since such a reputation for being the most elite homes. They meet all levels of comfort and strength. Construction at houses of timber used timber – bonded beam with a rectangular cross-section. This board fifty percent stronger than conventional wood, as it is completely no gaps or cracks, and corner joints especially durable and waterproof. Talk about advantages of a wooden house can be quite a long time. But one thing is indisputable property belongs only to him. This is the perfect climate inside the wooden house, which will not be able to repeat, even the most modern air-conditioning. Excellent oxygen balance, the ideal humidity, the unique flavor of the forest, which for years comes from a tree, feeding air volatile production, positively affecting the human condition. Not without reason in Europe Wooden houses are considered the best and most expensive.
The crisis of crisis, and, sorry for the banal, to live. And to live – this despite the variety of human activities, and build more housing, home. And housing – this is perhaps the most necessary, without which it is impossible to do in a normal human life. What kind of housing we need to at all times – wealthy or not, under any economic crises and other cataclysms? Given our climate – probably warm. Still, I think, is healthy, ie, clean, no harmful effect on our bodies.
It is also desirable little expensive and does not require a lot of money to maintain the house needed physical and climatic parameters: temperature, humidity, noise, and equal and constant ventilation. Most fully meets these requirements housing being built on modern heat-frame technology, where the heater is used ecowool. Sometimes people confuse self Name technologies – frame. In the subconscious of our compatriots and the house frame things badly compatible. This is something insecure, frail, collapses with time on his side, and the like. "Breaking" is the attitude of people towards Frame Construction is difficult, but possible.
Requires a bit – to show and tell, that is, to argue that speak in favor of choosing such technologies. We'll discuss this in more detail in later articles. There is one more psychological factor is not very conducive to the promotion of frame technology in Russia. This is where something nostalgic from the past, not our lives – to leave the house the children, grandchildren – in short descendants. The combination of the words "frame house – the descendants of" causes, alas, pitiable smile. And that's nothing! Firstly, even as you can! In the sense that an elementary respect for the choice of technology and quality materials will stand for the frame house and a hundred and more years. Secondly, if the altered rhythm of life and the unpredictability of even the immediate future hardly grown-up children who are not old enough to want to live in a "native penates. The reason for this may be a departure for a stay abroad, and the banal mismatch of flavors to choose project materials, but simply a place under construction. But technological progress can, in general, to make such adjustments to the device housing that stone palace, and the carcass of environmentally friendly low-energy house will be bad manners or and backward from a technical point of view of housing. So why "garden city"? Build for themselves in the realities of our time. The children will decide for themselves where and how they live, or time will decide for them.
And the installation of automatic balancing valves on the risers once and save the inhabitants from the "traditional" nuisance caused by uneven heating of the battery at different entrances of a home or apartment rooms. Notes for the wise owner can not forget about the financial side. For example, the inhabitants of many homes (especially older, equipped with gas stoves) still pay the electricity consumed by a single tariff, whereas in most regions of Russia, there are two (day-night) and payment system. Housing repairs electrical suggests (if necessary) and the replacement of electric meters. As a result, the tenants get direct savings on payments for electricity, because night rate is usually about 4 times lower than the daytime. Of course, dvuhtarifny apartment meter can be installed individually, but in this case, each owner will have to fully pay its price. Reduce power consumption obschedomovoe allows informed choices electrical equipment. For example, the difference in electricity consumption between different models of lifts can reach 40-50%! And if you provide lighting in the stairwells automatic switches with motion sensors, then light will not burn in vain all night, including only when necessary.
Particular attention should be given the possibility of savings in payments for heating, as for the residents of some settlements, they constitute more than half monthly "rent." At the same time, upgrading the heating system, which was mentioned in the previous section, allows to achieve 35-45% reduction of heat. So, after installing the heat meter and the house- transition to pay for the consumed heat on the fact in the same proportion will decrease payments for heating. The reason is simple. Previously, heating systems (as and every single battery) have always worked in full force. However, winters in much of our country become really harsh but from time to time, interspersed prolonged thaws.
Therefore, citizens often had to keep the window open, actually heating the street. But after the installation of regulating the automation in improving outdoor air temperature heat consumption is automatically reduced, and along with it – and the figures in the monthly accounts. For example, residents of house number 29 on st. Lenin in Beloretsk, where instead of the elevator a few sites on the issuance of the building was installed automated thermal point Danfoss, as well as balancing valves on all risers and radiator thermostats on each battery in the first heating season after repairs have saved more than 250 thousand rubles – in 3000 for each apartment. Of course, the reconstruction of only limited communication is impossible. But their replacement – the most complex and costly part of the repair, because they permeate the entire structure of the building. Therefore, you should always start from that stage, and make it "in full". Today, when the owners need to make only 5% of the cost of equipment and works (Which is usually about 2-3 thousand rubles for each family), they can not afford to bring engineering systems house in full compliance with modern requirements. Later, when all have to make their own expense, such costs can not "pull" the tenants, even a very large house.
If you recently did windows exclusively from wood, then today is the main material used in the manufacture of windows – is pvc (polyvinyl chloride), which is made on the basis of oil and salt. Window of polyvinyl chloride, were first manufactured in 1954, however, and now they are very popular due to its tightness, resistance to various weather phenomena and other properties. In the factories of pvc profiles made of pvc by extrusion. In the process of pvc, in conjunction with the desired additives, is heated to high temperatures, as a result, a viscous mass that you want to push through appropriate form, and then cooled. This leads to the formation of a hollow pvc profile, which is also called a multi because of the empty air chambers in it. With this device pvc windows are renowned for excellent levels of soundproofing and teplosohrannosti.
pvc profiles are produced in all factories in the same method, then why are they so different in price? Just the price of pvc profiles will be very dependent on various supplements. All sorts Additives used in the production of pvc profiles, not cheap. Incredibly, many companies producing windows, trying to save these supplements, using the fact that the buyer is unable to understand what additives are contained in the or other glazing. For example, pvc profile with a low content of titanium oxide or titanium content inappropriate quality, prone to instant yellowing. Advantages of plastic windows are explained useful properties, they acquire during manufacture.
Heat retention in housing provided by low thermal conductivity of pvc profile and use when you install additional seals to prevent cracks. Correctly mounted eurowinows provide your home, office, apartment warmth and comfort in any weather. From moisture, dust, excessive noise will keep your apartment special design glass. A diverse range of pvc profiles just pick one that fits the best way to design houses, flats and other premises. Need to mention another, equally important aspect of this long life – more than forty years. Compared with the standard, wood, pvc windows do not require heavy maintenance and continuous dyeing. Another important advantage is the existence of different ways to open the windows and system . For cleaning windows use a soap solution to rag.
When it comes to choosing furniture for your home, you have to be very careful to ensure that you select what will work best for you. Wrought iron furniture can be painted in any color, covered with bronze, copper, silver or gold. With the help of special methods can be artificially wear out so that it looked like a real antique. According to the designers, one of the most suitable premises for the use of modern wrought-iron furniture with decorative elements a bedroom.
Change the design of existing beds can order a new forged back. Also extracted from the total number of interior and create a special atmosphere in the rooms of graceful wrought-iron chandeliers, mirror frames, coffee tables. Interior details The final touch in creating a special mood of the house are fine furniture. According to designers, harmony in the interior look of art. Painting again is catching on. Not only classic but also contemporary artists, their paintings are available to almost anyone and can be masterpieces, which can be inherited to children.
In addition to the usual, often for the walls and ceilings apply aluminum paintings (Art Al), known for their long life. They are available in different color and style of: imitation fur, leather, wood, stone, cloth, with floral, water, and “Heavenly” motifs, made of bronze and brass, antique and just soaked in delicate pastel shades. Art Al offered in the form of a panel – it’s Impressionist paintings, Korean medieval miniatures, Oriental motifs. Not Only pictures can be used for interior decoration, for many years will not lose its artistic value and decorative vases. For example, the company produces ottaviani silverware. Unique Techniques allows the best properties of the material brought in the most favorable light. Glossy silver coating (lucido) and matt (satinato), as well as a smooth transition from one to another makes these vases dream of any aesthetic. Interesting to feature is the fact that they fit with any decor, whether classic or modern. “The core of the interior – it’s architecture. Ceilings, walls, windows, flooring, – notes consummate connoisseur of elegant style, decorator Frederic Meshish. – It is necessary that in twenty or thirty years they were still fit. ” Modern technologies and materials are now demonstrate that this period is – not the limit for them. Outside, changes landscape, but, for example, the frame will last more than one generation. In turn, furniture and interior details – mirrors, paintings, vases – can give the room a unique look and keep the home atmosphere within a few decades! Press Service of the Group PROPLEKS.